Friday, January 24, 2020
Themes of Heritage and Color in Ã Red Badge of CourageÃ Ã Ã "The cold passed reluctantly from the earth, and the retiring fogs revealed an army stretched out on the hills, resting. As the landscape changed from brown to green, the army awakened, and began to tremble with eagerness at the noise of rumors. It cast its eyes upon the roads, which were growing from long troughs of liquid mud to proper thoroughfares. A river, amber-tinted in the shadow of its banks, purled at the army's feet; and at night, when the stream had become of a sorrowful blackness, one could see across it the red, eyelike gleam of hostile camp fires set in the low brows of distant hills" (Crane 1). The above quote is the opening paragraph of Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage. Just this one paragraph foreshadows the themes of change in color and its underlying messages, and the subtle idea of social heritage. Crane, through his detailed writing, colors the war as an ever changing psychological standing as well as the changing ideals of the socially learned heritage. Ã The novel opens with Henry Fleming in the field and remembering the route to his current condition within the war. Crane spends a good amount of time relaying the interaction between Henry and his mother as he prepares to go off to fight in the war as well as the questioning of himself as a man. What is so interesting about this particular part, as it relates to the end of the novel, is that the America ideals of the creation of a man (hero) through war and war as beautiful are approached and challenged. Ã Henry's mother isn't pleased with his going off to war. She warns him against not only the enemy but also the men he shall be fighting with. "He had, of course, dre... ... the flag, the reader can see both flags in color upon a still black and white background. And finally, by the end, when Henry and his fellow men awaken to their victory, everything is in color of hope. Ã Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage formed circles of the two themes of heritage and color. While interchanging romanticism and deromanticism, Crane is able to create a complete three hundred and sixty degree rotation of the ideas of manhood, heroism, and attitudes of war (the fluctuating colors). The novel opens with the question of warriors equaling men and heroes, and ends with the answer. The novel begins full of color and ends with color. "Over the river a golden ray of sun came through the hosts of leaden rain clouds" (Crane 183). Ã Works Cited Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage. Barnes and Noble Classics, 1992. Ã Ã Ã
Thursday, January 16, 2020
In today's society, weÃ¢â¬â¢re facing many changes. Our own family, neighbors, and countrymen are afraid of many dangers that influence their lives. In America, we have somewhat of a low crime rate as far as murders, having a rating of twenty-four of sixty-two countries. Although our drug offense rate is number two of sixty-two, in the categories of rape, assault, and kidnapping, the United States tops at number one. We find ourselves asking, why? How did this nation accumulate such high numbers of these crimes? We point our fingers to prisoners and those who are or were convicted on the street. But we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t considering how they got that way in the first place. Everyone grows up with a role model, parent, guardian, some kind of example or someone they look up to. Studies show those who had a childhood involving physical abuse, neglect, or molestation would re-enact those actions, onto someone else. The society needs to change itself. People who sexually, physically, and emotionally abuse their children need to be rehabilitated or put through a program. When a person endures such abuse with no counseling to alter that mind set, that is when they begin to have criminal behavior. If we made the society a better place and properly handled the people who commit wrongdoings, incarceration rates would decline enormously. U. S. prisons are a breeding ground for violence. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen what people look like and act like after theyÃ¢â¬â¢re released from prison. Most inmates get tattoos and maintain a prison mentality. That mentality is having respect, including violent acts when disrespected, and being tough. How is someone supposed to change for good when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re held in isolation, segregation, or population? When a harmless person is admitted into a prison, especially a high security one, they are prone to become violent. The effects of feeling and being held down instead of being pushed to be a better individual have mad inmates very violent people. If you treat someone like an animal, especially a prisoner since theyÃ¢â¬â¢re confined to small cells, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re going to act like one. The history of prisons and the inmates who maintain a certain reputation, and recruit other criminals to be like them, have also been a problem within the system. So many gangs within the prisons have restrained many prisoners from becoming better individuals. Once a prisoner commits an act of violence onto another, their sentence and punishment is often increased. When an inmate doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t join or follow the gang life once they enter, they become targets with no defense. It has been increasingly hard to prevent these gangs from going on, that acceptance of them has become necessary for survival in jail. Some inmates are incapable of change. Statistics report almost half of the people in jail have a mental illness, most are not aware they have. So for those people, a positive change and rehabilitation will be harder to overcome. How is a person supposed to want to change and become a proper citizen when they are emotionally and physically suppressed? Of course a person needs to be accounted for their actions and be punished. But to maintain focus in a negative direction, will do no good within prison walls. To provide a stronger encouraging opportunity to change for cons will give them the option of being a citizen again, instead of residing to prison Ã¢â¬Å"hard life. Not only do the guards and gangs within the prisons affect the possibility of reform, but the people outside of the prison. If prisoners were given positive feedback for a good deed they performed within the walls, acknowledged for the good things or steps taken towards a better life, the idea of full reform would be very possible and effective. The environment in prison is so harsh, and sometimes life threatening, it makes it hard for a persons mind to be ta ken off the idea of just surviving. When you place an inmate sentenced for a drug offense in a cell next to someone sentenced for several murders, of course theyÃ¢â¬â¢re going to become self-defensive. This creates fear in the harmless inmate, causing self-defense and that leads to violence. To prevent anything from happening, prisoners resort to being accepted by gangs Ã¢â¬â thatÃ¢â¬â¢s how the violence, gambling, and trading rises and continues. A man by the name Michael Santos has been serving time, in prisons of all levels of security, for almost twenty-five years. Since 1995, he has found several habits that will make a prisoner successful, and has been teaching many classes to other inmates. He states this in an article he wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"I lived this program and derived a sense of fulfillment in showing others how such habits could enrich their lives, assist their prison adjustments, and prepare them to emerge successfully. Ã¢â¬ The habits he encouraged were: being proactive, begin with the end in mind, take first steps first, seek first to understand then be understood, think win/win, synergize, and continuously sharpen their approach. Successful inmates created their own opportunities for growth through positive adjustments. They understand the importance of bringing meaning to their lives despite prison conditions. In Michaels classes, he focused not on being released early, but enriching their lives in the present, despite the limitations of confinement. Although those withheld in federal prisons are not given the possibility of early release or probation, these habits should be set in lower level prisons. If we taught these classes or provided more of these programs, the success level of transformed prisoners would increase. Another reason we need to push for reform is the financial factor of imprisonment. We taxpayers pay more than sixty billion dollars a year and that number will continue skyrocketing. Unless we set programs in our prisons and rehabilitate offenders successfully, our rates will remain the same and our money will be spent on housing these criminals. If we put more effort into hiring better correctional staffs and provide more rehab programs, we would be housing a lot less criminals. Our tax dollars could be spent on improving our communities, schools, government, and providing healthcare for our country. If three prisoners were released, two of those three would return to prison as re-offenders within three years. This fact should bring attention to everyone that our prison system is horribly failing with rehabilitation of prisoners. Of course the mind sets inmates have in jail often remains once theyÃ¢â¬â¢re released. If they lived such a way for a year or many years, regardless of the crime, it would be hard to change that person of their habits. That is why we need these programs and classes activated in our prisons. These classes would bring motivation, inspiration, show inmates the positive side of confinement and focus on becoming a successful individual upon release. A prison should be a place for improving oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self after committing a crime, not for corruption. We know it will take a long time for such programs to become effective, but as long as we take small steps towards improvement in our prison system, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll see improvement in crime and imprison rates. Not only must we establish reform in more prisons, but we must improve our communities that are raising these criminals as well.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
An elegiac couplet is a pair of sequential lines in poetry in which the first line is written in dactylic hexameter and the second line in dactylic pentameter. The Roman poet Ennius introduced the elegiac couplet to Latin poetry for themes less lofty than that of epic, for which dactylic hexameter was suited. The typical meter of an elegiac couplet can be represented as: Ã ¯ ÃË ÃË | Ã ¯ ÃË ÃË | Ã ¯ ÃË ÃË | Ã ¯ ÃË ÃË | Ã ¯ ÃË ÃË | Ã ¯ xÃ ¯ ÃË ÃË | Ã ¯ ÃË ÃË | Ã ¯ | Ã ¯ ÃË ÃË | Ã ¯ ÃË ÃË | Ã ¯ The first two lines of Ovids Amores I, which is written in elegiac couplets, can be scanned (a note on scansion in Latin poetry) as follows, where bolding marks the long syllables, the non-bold are short or anceps, dashes separate syllables, spaces separate words, and the ends of feet are marked by vertical lines: Ar-ma gra- | vÃ « nu-me- | rÃ vi-o- | len-ta-que | bel-la pa- | rÃ -bamÃâ-de-re, | mÃ -te-ri- | Ã | con-ve-ni- | en-te mo- | dÃ «s.
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Legalization of Marijuana Marijuana is not a recent discovery, but the mysteries surrounding the controversial topic in question remains to be disputed since its prohibition. Classified as an illegal substance, cannabis has been restricted in Canada and around the world. Marijuana is a complex drug and its contradictory claims of medical purposes, and harmful destruction, fuel the debate on whether or not the legal constraints of consuming marijuana should be reconsidered. In consideration of academic journals and news article, citizen welfare, economy benefit, social progression and legal system implications, will be focused on. Despite opposing beliefs, prohibiting the recreational usage of marijuana does not counteract the dangers of the practise thus legalizing marijuana in Canada will allow greater benefit than harm. Ever since the Canadian Liberal government initiated the legalization of marijuana, many have been appalled by potential consequences of the adjudication and conjointly, there are strong beliefs that recreation use of the the drug present. Some advantages in legislating the change are that, the underground economy will be intermittent, there will be safer drugs for user, and accretion of monetary funds. The first advantage is that regulating marijuana will abolish the marijuana black market in Canada, and consequences affiliated with illegal commerce. Additionally, criminalizing drugs presents ambiguity concerning the effectiveness of law enforcementShow MoreRelatedShould Marijuana Be Legalized?849 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhether marijuana should be legalized. Around 23 states have legalized marijuana for medical and recreational use. In the state of Illinois, medicinal use of marijuana has been passed on April 17, 2013. Since January 2014, patients are able to obtain marijuana with a doctor s recommendation. The new debate is whether marijuana should be legalized for the general public as a recreational drug. Although some believe that marijuana is harmless, and that it has beneficial medicinal uses, marijuana shouldRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1715 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMarijuana in Society Cannabis, formally known as marijuana is a drug obtained from the tops, stems and leaves of the hemp plant cannabis. The drug is one of the most commonly used drugs in the world. Only substances like caffeine, nicotine and alcohol are used more (Ã¢â¬Å"MarijuanaÃ¢â¬ 1). In the U. S. where some use it to feel Ã¢â¬Å"highÃ¢â¬ or get an escape from reality. The drug is referred to in many ways; weed, grass, pot, and or reefer are some common names used to describe the drug (Ã¢â¬Å"MarijuanaÃ¢â¬ 1). Like mostRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescannabis plant or marijuana is intended for use of a psychoactive drug or medicine. It is used for recreational or medical uses. In some religions, marijuana is predominantly used for spiritual purposes. Cannabis is indigenous to central and south Asia. Cannabis has been scientifically proven that you can not die from smoking marijuana. Marijuana should be legalized to help people with medical benefits, econo mic benefits, and criminal benefits. In eight states, marijuana was legalized for recreationalRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMarijuana is a highly debatable topic that is rapidly gaining attention in society today. Ã Legalizing marijuana can benefit the economy of this nation through the creation of jobs, increased tax revenue, and a decrease in taxpayer money spent on law enforcement. Ã Ã Many people would outlaw alcohol, cigarettes, fast food, gambling, and tanning beds because of the harmful effects they have on members of a society, but this is the United States of America; the land of the free and we should give peopleRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1010 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe legalization of marijuana became a heated political subject in the last few years. Twenty-one states in America have legalized medical marijuana. Colorado and Washington are the only states where marijuana can be purchased recreationally. Marijuana is the high THC level part of the cannabis plant, which gives users the Ã¢â¬Å"highÃ¢â¬ feeling. There is ample evidence that supports the argument that marijuana is beneficial. The government should legalize marijuana recreationally for three main reasonsRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespolitics in the past decade would have to be the legalization of marijuana. The sale and production of marijuana have been legalized for medicinal uses in over twenty states and has been legalized for recreational uses in seven states. Despite the ongoing support for marijuana, it has yet to be fully legalized in the federal level due to cultural bias against Ã¢â¬Å"potÃ¢â¬ smoking and the focus over its negative effects. However, legalizing marijuana has been proven to decrease the rate of incrimination in AmericaRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesshows the positive benefits of marijuana, it remains illegal under federal law. In recent years, numerous states have defied federal law and legalized marijuana for both recreational and medicinal use. Arizona has legalized marijuana for medical use, but it still remains illegal to use recreationally. This is absurd, as the evidence gathered over the last few decades strongly supports the notion that it is safer than alcohol, a widely available substance. Marijuana being listed as a Schedule I drugRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized? Essay1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSHOULD MARIJUANA BE LEGALIZED? Marijuana is a drug that has sparked much controversy over the past decade as to whether or not it should be legalized. People once thought of marijuana as a bad, mind-altering drug which changes a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality which can lead to crime and violence through selling and buying it. In the past, the majority of citizens believed that marijuana is a harmful drug that should be kept off the market and out of the hands of the public. However, a recent study conductedRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1596 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages But what needs to be known before a user can safely and completely make the decision if trying Marijuana is a good idea? Many do not want the drug to be legalized because they claim that Cannabis is a Ã¢â¬Å"gateway drugÃ¢â¬ , meaning it will cause people to try harder drugs once their body builds up a resistance to Marijuana, because a stronger drug will be needed to reach a high state. This argument is often falsely related to the medical si de of the debate over legalization. It is claimed that this wouldRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?985 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLegalize Marijuana Despite what people believe about marijuana, it hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t once proved to be the cause of any real issue. It makes you wonder what the reason as to why there is a war on drugs. Why is marijuana the main concern? Since the time that alcohol and tobacco became legal, people wonder why marijuana isnÃ¢â¬â¢t legal yet. The fact that marijuana is illegal is mainly caused by the amount of money, jobs, and pride invested in the drug war. Once the government starts anything, they stick to it. At
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Instead of focusing on all thatÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong with your life, write down all the good things you have going for you. The more you think about it, the more good things youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find. Seek solace through these good things in your life, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll soon stop feeling miserable and sad. Tell yourself that Ã¢â¬Å"this too shall passÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â this is my favorite quote, and at the slightest hint of sadness or trouble, I tell myself that this too shall pass and all will be well with my world again. I just need to ride out the storm and wait for the calm to envelop me again. Realize that there are others who are in worse positions than you are, and that you are better off than many people in the world. This makes your problems seem trivial and youÃ¢â¬â¢re shamed out ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦My initial reaction was that such a book was the last thing I wanted to write. As someone who has suffered from depression since he was a teen, I was afraid that writing about that illness might well sink me into a dark place from which it would be difficult to climb out. But only a few moments after Cheryl asked, I found myself not only agreeing wholeheartedly to do it, but believing that this may well be the very book I was meant to write. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not exactly sure when the first bout of depression came. The earliest episode that comes to mind was soon after my adoptive father died, when I was thirteen-years old. Charlie Stork died instantaneously when he crashed his 1965 Rambler station wagon into the concrete pillar of a railroad overpass. We were living in the small town of Alpine,Texas, located somewhere between El Paso and San Antonio. IÃ¢â¬â¢m an only child and my mother had gone to Mexico to care for her gravely-ill father. Charlie and I were living in a dilapidated house in the poorest section of town. Our trailer had been repossessed a couple of months earlier for failure to make the monthly payments. Photo courtesy of rellim (flickr.com) As hard at the grief of losing my father was, it was still better than the debilitating depression that came a few months after his death. I was living at that time with Father Martinez, a priest and old family friend. (My mother had to return to Mexico to care for my grandfather.)Show MoreRelatedGender Inequality And Its Relationship With Sexual Dysfunction Drugs1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Gender Inequality and its Relationship with Sexual Dysfunction Drugs Susan Elwood Monmouth University Abstract This paper looks to discuss and expand on a news article and two other published articles which report on the lack of Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approval for a sildenafil drug or Ã¢â¬Å"female ViagraÃ¢â¬ . The articles remain constant in the description of what this drug would provide for women. However, they differ in describing the reasons why a drug has not been approvedRead MoreSexual Dysfunction in a Relationship703 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesstudy was conducted to determine if attitude create sexual dysfunction in relationship amongst male and female. Often times sexual dysfunction can arise in the sexual response cycles which are desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution. Desire is when the erection starts in male and female. When it comes down to dysfunction playing a role it occurs when there is no interest in different activities. Arousal is a continuation of the erection during sexual activities. Arousal in women can become a problemRead MoreSexual Dysfunction Essay1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA vast amount of men and women suffer from some type of sexual dysfunction. Researchers have identified a number of factors that may contribute to or perpetuate sexual dysfunction, including, but not limited to, performance anxiety. Performance anxiety is defined as an obsession about the adequate pleasing of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s partner during the act of sexual intercourse. Rather than focusing on the pleasurable benefits that one can receive from intercourse, the individual experiencing performance anxiety isRead More Causes of Sexual Dysfunctions Essay1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCauses of Sexual Dysfunctions Sexual dysfunctions are an important public health concern, to which general health and emotional problems contribute (10). What is a sexual dysfunction? A sexual dysfunction is any condition that inhibits someones ability to enjoy sex. Some common sexual dysfunctions are: hypoactive desire disorder (low sex drive), hyperactive sexual disorder (high sex drive), sexual aversion disorder, lack of lubrication (females), impotence (male erectile disorder), prematureRead MoreSexual Dysfunction is the loss or impairment of the ordinary physical responses of sexual function.1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Sexual Dysfunction is the loss or impairment of the ordinary physical responses of sexual function. Women are usually unable to reach an orgasm, which is called female sexual arousal disorder. It once was called impotence but was rejected because it was too judgmental. When men are unable to attain or uphold an erection it is called an erectile dysfunction. Desire disorders, Arousal disorders, orgasm disorders, and Pain disorders are the four categories of sexual dysfunction. It is common when youRead MoreSexual Dysfunction As A Side Effect Of Chronic Disease1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRelationships and sexual satisfaction enhance the quality of life. When one member of the relationship suffers from a chronic illness, it may restrict many areas of their life. Sex is a significant source of comfort, intimacy, and pleasure. The sexuality of an individual may be compromised by physical and emotional problems that accompany the chronic disease (Ferrini, 2013 p. 358). The illness the individual is facing my cause them to feel tired, depressed, and uninterested in sexual activity. IntercourseRead MoreSex Therapy Is The Appropriate Treatment For Sexual Dysfunction1874 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagestherapeutic approach to sexual problems, revolutionized what health professionals saw as the appropriate treatment for sexual dysfunction. In contrast to psychoanalytical approaches, the new s ex therapy was relatively brief, problem focused, direct and behavioral with regard to technique. Ultimately, the large majority of sexual difficulties were seen as arising from a sexually restrictive or religiously orthodox upbringing. This resulted in decreased communication with sexual partners, a lack of informationRead MoreThe, Erectile Dysfunction And Low Sexual Performance Are Addressed By The Male Enhancement Products1065 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages VigRX Plus Vs. MaleExtra The male related issues like premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction and low sexual performance are addressed by the male enhancement products. In such cases, choosing the best male enhancement product is a confusing and challenging task to do as the market is flooded with many of them! Among them, the most dominating products available in the market are the VigRX Plus and the MaleExtra. There are various factors to consider before choosing the right product. BasedRead MoreThe Sexual Dysfunction Problem for Men751 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPremature ejaculation (PE) is a frequent and under-treated problem for males and their sexual partners. PE is the most common sexual dysfunction problem for men, with an estimated 14-30% of males ages 18 years and older reporting PE globally. However, the prevalence of PE is difficult to determine because of the ambiguity surrounding the definition of clinically relevant PE as well as the reluctance of sufferers to report their condition . Yet, most previously published clinical trials use theRead MoreOver The Counter Medications Of Maca Root1984 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesmenopause. Sexual Dysfunction In 2008, doctors examined 20 patients, 17 women and three men, suffering from sexual dysfunction. People who consumed 3 grams per day of maca root showed marked improvements in sexual function, whereas those who took 1.5 grams per day did not. This study seems to indicate higher concentrations of maca root may increase its beneficial effects. Aphrodisiac Maca contains zinc, iodine and essential fatty acids. All of these can contribute to increase libido and sexual desire
Saturday, December 14, 2019
1. Historical background * Before the 18th century Baltic region had quite few contacts with Russian culture and Ortodox civilization. Region was already integrated to the West! And there was quite little common in the history of Lithuania in one side and Estonia+Latvia in another side! * Only since the end of the 18th century we can speak about the Baltic region as a region what has a common destiny. We will write a custom essay sample on Russian Minority and Border Issue in Baltic States or any similar topic only for you Order Now Destiny which is not pleasure to Baltic states. Since 18th century all Baltic States were as a part of Russian Empire: * Estonia and Livonia (modern Estonia and Latvia) as a part of Swedish Empire was incorporated into the Russian Empire after the SwedenÃ¢â¬â¢s defeat by Russia in the Great Northern War in 1721. * The PolishÃ¢â¬âLithuanian Commonwealth (created in 1569) was partitioned in 1795 by the Russian Empire, Prussia, and Habsburg Austria. The largest area of Lithuanian territory became part of Russian Empire. * After the World War I in 1918 all baltic countries got independence. This period was extremely important for national self-consciousness. * And again were occupied in 1940 by Soviet Union. After incorporation into Soviet Union Stalinistic red terror regime was started in Baltic region: systematic persecution and physical destruction of political, cultural, military elite of the nations. Mass deportations (to Siberia for example) began, also nationalisation and industrialisation were started. Strong ideological pressure by communists. So Latvians and Estonians historical hatred against Germans turned now against Russians. But memories from independence time actually helped these nations to survive Soviet period Ã¢â¬â at once we were independent, maybe will be again! * Regained their independence in 1990 after the fall of Soviet Union. Face some problems with Russia. As we can see all Baltic States was in similar position since 18th century. But if we look deeper, we can find that all these occupations made different impact on each country which caused different problems in each country. It was made by Russia delibarately. Latvia and Estonia had better industrial infrastructure before Soviet rule so it was more easy to carry on extensive industrialization here. Because of industrialisation there were lots of russian workforce brought to Latvia and Estonia. Lithuania was not so industrialized, so demanded more investments and also had more free workforce in its own rural districts, so Lithuania effectively prevented extensive Russian immigration, Latvia and Estonia couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t. 2. Issues after gaining independence As I mentioned before each of Baltic country faces different problems with Russia after independence. In Latvia and Estonia the biggest still remains russian minority issue. 2. 1. Russian minority issue. After gaining independence (in 1990) there left a huge russian minority in Estonia and Latvia, about 30% of population were russians. It was a huge problem to these countries bacause they wanted to emphasize their national identity, unique language and culture. So the integration process of russian minorities was started just after the independence. Estonian citizenship was given only to the russians who lived in Estonia before World War II and their descendants. All Estonian residents, who had been Soviet citizens, had the right to register themselves as citizens of Russia or to choose any other citizenship. The Estonian Government actively promotes the acquiring of Estonian citizenship through naturalisation, thus reducing the number of persons with undetermined citizenship. A person who wishes to acquire Estonian citizenship by naturalisation must have been a permanent resident of Estonia for at least five years, have a basic knowledge of the Estonian language, have knowledge of the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia and the Citizenship Act. Residents without citizenship may not elect the Riigikogu (the national parliament) nor the European Parliament, but are eligible to vote in the municipal elections. In 2012, 84. 3% of EstoniaÃ¢â¬â¢s population held Estonian citizenship, 8. 9% were citizens of other countries and 6. 8% were of undetermined citizenship. The same in Latvia Ã¢â¬â latvian citizenship was given only to the russians who lived in Latvia before World War II and their descendants. There is quite common non-citizen status in Latvia. Latvian non-citizens can be regarded neither as citizens, nor aliens or stateless persons but as persons with Ã¢â¬Å"a specific legal statusÃ¢â¬ . They have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights. They have their own magazines, itÃ¢â¬Ës like uique community in Latvia. So a lot of russians donÃ¢â¬Ët bother about latvian citizenship and seek latvian citizenship only if they want to attend in political arena, because as non-citizens they canÃ¢â¬Ët do so. Otherwise there is no point for russians to learn latvian language. Russians in Latvia claim: Ã¢â¬Å¾Latvian language? Why do we need it? Americans didnÃ¢â¬Ët learn American Indian language, british didnÃ¢â¬Ët learn aborigine language. Ã¢â¬Å" Situation in Lithuania is totally different. There are 80% of lithuanians in Lithuania. Historically minorities in Lithuania usually knew and nowadays know lithunian language pretty well, apart some exceptions. RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude to this issue. Russia is always complaining about russian minorities in Baltic countries. Russia state to European Union that human rights are trampled on because there is no appropriate respect to russian minorities in baltic countries. Complaints include all Balttic states although russian minority is not essential issue in Lithuania. Only 5,8% of total population are russians in Lithuania. Compared to Estonia (there is 25% of russian minority) and Latvia () , number is very low. . 2. The border issue. Estonia. Estonia had hoped for the return of more than 2,000 square kilometers of territory, named Petseri County, annexed by Russia in 1945. The annexed land had been within the borders Estonia approved by Russia in the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty. The border treaty with Estonia was swiftly ratified by the Estonian parliament in 2005. Howeve r, the Russian minister of foreign affairs withdrew his signature from the Treaty because he objected to the Estonian parliamentÃ¢â¬â¢s ratification law which made reference to texts mentioning the Soviet occupation of Estonia. The border remains substantially the same as the one drawn by Stalin, with some minor adjustments. Latvia. In the case of Latvia, the border treaty was not even signed till today because Russia was angered by the Latvian parliamentÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to add a unilateral preamble condemning the Soviet occupation. Also Russia insisted that the situation of Russian-speakers in Latvia must be improved before any treaty could be signed. The Abrene District has been the main reason the two countries have not been able to agree on a border treaty. The Latvian-Russian border is functional in de facto terms. There are two possible ways in which the situation might develop in the future. The possibility that Latvia might entirely waive the unilateral declaration or that Russia might agree to ratify a treaty with the appended declaration. Lithuania. RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s border problems with Lithuania were different from those with Estonia and Latvia. True, nationalist Lithuanian groups questioned the legality of RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s take-over of the Kaliningrad region from Germany, and the first President Vytautas Landsbergis demanded not only the demilitarisation but also the Ã¢â¬ de-colonisationÃ¢â¬ of the region. However, all Lithuanian governments recognised the existing borders with Russia. In 1997 the Lithuanian and Russian presidents finally signed a border treaty. The Russian Duma, however, refused to sign the border agreement, openly explaining that it would remove one of the last obstacles to Lithuanian NATO membership and NATO bases. The Duma also claimed that the transfer of Klaipeda (Memel) from the Russian share of German East Prussia to Soviet Lithuania in 1945 was illegal, complained about Lithuanian politicians raising territorial claims on Russia and discrimination of Russian-speakers in Lithuania, too. However it was ratificated by Lietuvos seimas (LithuniaÃ¢â¬â¢s Parliament) in 1999 and by Russian Duma in 2003. RussiaÃ¢â¬Ës policy with Baltic countries: * With Estonia and Latvia, Russian foreign policy is focused on the protection of the rights of Russian minorities. With Lithuania, where this card is useless, Moscow has developed more subtle tactics. * RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s tactics take the form of oil sanctions, Ã¢â¬Ëgas isolationÃ¢â¬â¢ and dissuasion of Western firms from investing in Baltic energy projects. * Russian interest: Baltic states as a window to Europe. Baltic States as an obstacle for Russian trade and communication with Western Europe. How to cite Russian Minority and Border Issue in Baltic States, Essay examples
Friday, December 6, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Context of Pharmacological Academic Performance. Answer: Introduction The aim of the assignment is to demonstrate the ability to reflect on the health scenario in the case study of Wasim. Wasim is a university student, and while using Facebook, he finds his friends talking about purchasing smart drugs. He learns from them these drugs are used to increase performance in exams. Upon personal investigation, he finds that these drugs are prescribed for conditions like ADHD, which is not diagnosed in any of his friends case. Wasim decided to evaluate evidence pertaining to use of such drugs and find if what his friends are claiming are true. The objective of the essay is to address the health question developed by Wasim and critically evaluate the evidence provided in relation to the question. The essay initially analyses the quality of the evidence provided followed by the discussion on the factors influencing the implementation of the evidence. The essay highlights the PICO elements and lastly discuses if the evidence aligns with the PICO question. The research study by Hildt et al. (2014), involves three authors. Each of the authors belongs to the different professional background. The first author is Elisabeth Hildt. She works at Illinois Institute of Technology at centre for Study of Ethics. She works as professor and director. She is an expert in neuroscience and especially deals with cognitive studies. Her research is based on ethical and philosophical issues in the subject. The second author is Klaus Lieb, working as professor and director at Mainz University in the Psychiatry and Psychotherapy department. The third author of the research study is AndreasGnterFranke also works in the same department as the second author as a trainee (Hildt et al. 2014). The research has no conflict of interest in regards to authors of paper. The appropriate and sufficient details on authorship are the strength of the study as it indicates the credibility of research. It indicates the readers about the reliability of the research. The research study has considered the ethical issues which also add to the strength of the study (LoBiondo-Wood Haber, 2017). It can be judged that the authors collaborating in the study are highly qualified. It can be interpreted that their affiliations and expertise is relevant to conduct the study in the area of smart drugs. The aim of the paper is clearly sated which is to investigate the prescription, and illicit stimulants use by the university students for academic performance in a broad context. The research question is not stated. It can be interpreted from the background that the research question is to know if the cognitive enhancement solely represents the use of drugs or its serves any other purpose too. The aims and objectives of the paper justify the need of the study. Since there is insufficient literature pertaining to use of smart drugs and the real world effects associated with it, the research study aims to address the gap in this area. Other than the academic enhancement the study also aims to identify additional benefits of smart drugs. It can be considered the strength of the study. However, lack of clear research question or hypothesis is the weakness of the study. It is because the aim is broad and having specific research question would have been convenient for readers (OBrien et al., 2014). The paper uses the qualitative research paradigm. The data collection instrument is to conduct semi-structured interviews in a face-to-face setting. The methodology and the methods used in the study are justified. It is the strength of the study. According to Mertens (2014), qualitative interviews are appropriate in order to explore the perceptions of the participants and interaction with the stimulants for enhancing the academic performance (Brannen, 2017). Semi-structured interviews used for data collection is justified as it provides insights of the students opinions and beliefs of using stimulants. It is the strength of the research paper. The participants of the study are students of MainzUniversity who are recruited anonymously via email. These participants have been confirmed to take prescription or illicit (psycho-) stimulants. A total of 18 participants were chosen. The participant's size is justified as a qualitative interview is time-consuming method. It is not possible to consider large sample size. There is a chance of potential bias with the participant's self-selection process (McCusker Gunaydin, 2015). This may be considered the weakness of the study. The findings reveal that cognitive enhancement does not solely represent the intake of stimulants for better academic results. The other benefits of stimulants found include leading an active life, well balancing the academics and other liabilities, effective time management, cope up with memorising, maximise time, and increase motivation. The strength of the study is the findings that address the research aims. The weakness of the study is the discrepancy related to the subjective and the objective outcomes (Hildt et al., 2014). In the quantitative study by (Munro et al., 2017), Bailey A. Munro is the first author and is the expert of Neuroscience subject. The first and the second author Lisa L. Weyandt, work at University of Rhode Island, United States. The later is professor in the department of psychology. Marisa E. Marraccin is the third author. She is the professor at Alpert Medical School of Brown University and researches research in Bradley Hasbro Research Centre, at University of Rhode Island. The fourth author of the paper is Danielle R. Oster, who also works in the same university as previous two authors and is the professor of psychology. There are no conflicts of interest. It can be judged that the authors collaborating in the study are highly qualified to conduct research on human cognitive function. Their affiliations and expertise is relevant to conduct the study in the area of smart drugs. It constitutes the strength of the study. The appropriate and sufficient details on authorship indicate the credibility and reliability of research. The weakness of the study is lack of details on ethical consideration (Creswell Poth, 2017). The research aims to investigate the relationship between use of stimulants by university students non-medically and executive function. The author clearly stated the first hypothesis as students are taking the stimulants to overcome executive deficits. The author also stated the second hypothesis as use of stimulants non-medically may moderate the relationship between academic performance and executive function. The researchers did justify the need of the study by conducting the thorough literature review on how academic outcomes are decreased by poor executive skills such as planning, orientation, self-regulation, and goal-oriented behaviour adding to strength of the study (LoBiondo-Wood Haber, 2017). The survey method is justified for this research this instrument is effective in collecting the self-report data from the research participants and assesses the opinions and feelings of research participants. It is appropriate for psychology-based research with broad goals. It is the strength of the study (McCusker Gunaydin, 2015). The participants are university students from six public universities of US and sample size is 308. The drawback of the paper is the use of sample as priority based on the primary aim of the study. Convenience sampling employed may hinder the generalisability of the findings (McCusker Gunaydin, 2015). The study should have proportionate number of participants (white and female). It may constitute the weakness of the study (Munro et al., 2017). Since the study is voluntary, the participants may not be representative of the entire population. The findings reveal that there is a high rate of NMUPS among students with deficits in executive skills and low rate among those without deficits. The executive skills improve with the use of stimulants. There is also high rate of use of stimulants with self-reported deficits, which makes the first hypothesis correct. These results only partially support the second hypothesis as there is no moderation of relation between executive function and grade point average. The results were statistically significant adding to the strength of the article. The findings appear to be slightly reliable due to self-reported data (Brannen, 2017). The results are supported by the National Centre for Research. The weakness of the study includes lack of consideration of the confounding factors and poor statistical significance of the interaction effect. (Munro et al., 2017). There are several barriers to application of the evidence obtained by Wasim. It includes the discrepancy in the subjective and objective data of the participants. Underreporting of data is possible due to quantitative questionnaires. Further, there is a potential bias due to personal response of participants. It is difficult to rule of social desirability. Further, barriers to use of evidence come from size and complexity of qualitative and quantitative research study, which may limit the concluding evidence (Maier Schaub, 2015). Therefore, Wasim may not be able to rely on this evidence or conclude the claims of his friends as true. Without knowing the drug kinetics or pharmacology of stimulants, it is difficult to rely on evidence for personal use (Munro et al., 2017). These four components assist the investigator in identifying the evidence from the literature search that can address specific clinical situation (Richardson et al., 2017). In the PICO question developed by Wasim, The population is University students, Intervention is the Use of stimulants, and The outcome is the academic performance enhancement. The research evidence strongly aligns with the PICO question and its elements. It well addresses the PICO question-Do stimulants increase academic performance in university students? As per the discussion, the stimulants increase academic performance when used by the university students. The driving force for taking these stimulants non-medically is the increase in motivation and executive skills. It may not be beneficial to take smart drugs illicitly as it accompanies ambiguous effects such as substance abuse. Conclusion As per the critical evaluation of the evidence provided, the quality of both the research articles is adequate. It was useful in addressing the PICO question of Wasim. There are both positive and negative aspects of stimulants use among the university students. Stimulants increase the academic performance. It is effective for students diagnosed poor executive functioning skills and with ADHD. It may be harmful to self-reported deficits. It may be harmful for Wasims friends to take these stimulants as they are not diagnosed with ADHD or prescribed for stimulants. Both the quantitative and qualitative research evidence has their own limitations, which acts as barrier in implementing the evidence. References Brannen, J. (Ed.). (2017).Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research. Routledge. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=enlr=id=YSIuDwAAQBAJoi=fndpg=PT6dq=quantitaive++methodology+in+psychology+reaserch+ots=rSS8HcRaK-sig=Xi0NAck_hzqKmDmVD0Uxkd1TQJQ#v=onepageq=quantitaive%20%20methodology%20in%20psychology%20reaserchf=false Creswell, J. W., Poth, C. N. (2017).Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=enlr=id=DLbBDQAAQBAJoi=fndpg=PP1dq=need+of+ethics+in+reserch+studyots=-gn93aMPOwsig=Z-NSDbQvaMKjJWu_Ju9cCobjOWQ#v=onepageq=need%20of%20ethics%20in%20reserch%20studyf=false Hildt, E., Lieb, K., Franke, A. G. (2014). 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